How does the Jewish phrase “born again” relate to Yeshua’s new usage?
To answer your question, the term “born again” actually had six meanings in Rabbinic Judaism:
1. Gentile converting to Judaism
2. Being crowned king
3. Bar mitzvah (Jewish confirmation at age 13)
4. Being married
5. Being ordained a rabbi
6. Becoming the head of a rabbinic academy
The six ways of being born again in Pharisaic Judaism all had physical connotations. What Jesus did was give it a spiritual connotation in reference to spiritual rebirth.