Is Jewishness carried through the male or female genealogy?
As with so many similar, controversial issues, the answer here differs between the Scriptures and Judaism. The Biblical rule is that Jewishness is traced through the father; according to Judaism, it is traced through the mother. But the Bible is for believers the determining factor: if the father is Jewish, the child is Jewish. In a situation where the father is Gentile and the mother Jewish, another Biblical priciple comes into play — the offspring of such a marriage have the option to identify with either side, just as Timothy did.