In Topics

Arnold FruchtenbaumBy Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum

But unto us God revealed them through the Spirit: for the Spirit searches all things, yea, the deep things of God.

1 Corinthians 2:10


This study, titled “The Spiritual Life and the Believer’s Rule of Life,” will be discussed in three categories: “The Believer’s Rule of Life in the Old Testament”; “The Believer’s Rule of Life in the Kingdom”; and “The Believer’s Rule of Life Today.”


A distinction has to be made here between two time-periods: the Pre-Mosaic Period, and the Mosaic Period itself.

A. The Pre-Mosaic Period

The Pre-Mosaic Period covered 2,500 years. Obviously, there had to be some type of rule of life for the believers during that time. There were four different dispensations covered by the Pre-Mosaic Period: the Dispensation of Innocence, the Dispensation of Conscience, the Dispensation of Human Government, and the Dispensation of Promise. All of these obviously have a rule of life to follow. During the first three of these dispensations, the rules of life were imposed upon all humanity.

However, the rule of life in the Dispensation of Promise was not imposed upon all humanity, but only upon one people in particular: the Jews. The Dispensation of Promise was based upon the Abrahamic Covenant, which contained promises and responsibilities. These promises were unconditional, and the Jewish responsibility was to remain in the place of blessing. The Mosaic Law, which came later, was an addition to the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant, but did not replace it. This was Paul’s great point in the Book of Galatians.

That raises the question, “What was the divine method of government from Adam to Moses? What was the rule of life?” Even when there was no specific code spelled out, it is obvious that God expected people to follow some type of rule of life. Furthermore, right from the very beginning, there was always a code or rule of life. Even in his state of innocence, Adam was given rules and regulations. After the Fall, we find other rules and regulations; with Noah came more rules and regulations; and with Abraham, even further rules and regulations. It is obvious that God expected man to understand his responsibility and to follow specific rules.

For example, Genesis 18:19 states:

For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children and his household after him, that they may keep the way of Jehovah, to do righteousness and justice; to the end that Jehovah may bring upon Abraham that which he has spoken of him.

This verse makes it very evident that God expected Abraham to follow a certain path-which Abraham did indeed follow. It implies an understanding of the mind concerning the will of God. Abraham had a revelation concerning the rule of life that he was to follow, because he had knowledge of the way of the Lord.

1. The Pre-Mosaic Requirements

Later, when God confirmed the Abrahamic Covenant through Isaac, one of Abraham’s sons, Genesis 26:5 states:

because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.

This verse clearly shows that Abraham had detailed knowledge and understanding of the divine requirements. There were five facets to these requirements: Abraham obeyed the voice of God; he obeyed the charge of God; he obeyed the commandments of God; he obeyed the statutes of God; and he obeyed the laws of God. It is simply not true that, before Moses, God did not give any laws or commandments. Even before Moses, God provided a rule of life for the Old Testament saints to follow. He expected obedience from humanity in general, but from believers in particular.

In Romans 5:13, Paul wrote:

or until the law sin was in the world; but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

Many have misunderstood what Paul was saying here to mean that there was no law before Moses. That is far from the truth! In this verse, Paul is dealing with the Law of Moses, and he is pointing out that there was no violation of the Law of Moses between Adam and Moses simply because there was no Law of Moses to violate. However, that is not to say that there were no other laws present. Because other laws had been given by God, man was expected to obey them.

2. The Pre-Mosaic Rules of Life

God did provide other rules and regulations prior to giving His law to Moses. While no one was guilty of violating the Law of Moses during the Pre-Mosaic Period, there were other law-codes, which were violated. With each dispensation there was also a covenant, and each new covenant contained a specific rule of life.

The Dispensation of Innocence was based upon the Edenic Covenant. That covenant spelled out rules and regulations, and these became the rule of life for that period.

After the Fall of man, between Adam and Noah, came the Dispensation of Conscience, based upon the Adamic Covenant. It also contained a rule of life to be followed. The Dispensation of Conscience came to an end with the Noahic Flood.

Following the Flood came the Dispensation of Government, based upon the Noahic Covenant. The details of this dispensation are given in Genesis 9. Once again rules and regulations were spelled out, and a rule of life was given.

Finally, with Abraham came the Dispensation of Promise, based upon the Abrahamic Covenant. This was not imposed upon all humanity, but only upon the Jewish nation, the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Jewish history existed for four centuries before the Law of Moses was given, yet it is evident that God had a rule of life for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to follow. God said to Isaac that the reason He was sustaining the covenant through him was because Abraham obeyed the voice of God, the charge of God, the commandments of God, the statutes of God, and the laws of God.

There were various codes of rules or codes of law preceding the time of Moses, which the Old Testament saints were expected to obey.

B. The Mosaic Period

The Mosaic Period lasted about 1,500 years. Throughout this time, the Law of Moses was the rule of life; and to visibly show spirituality, one had to obey the Law of Moses. The Law of Moses will now be discussed in four areas.

1. The Purposes

There were many purposes of the Mosaic Law, but for this study we will limit the scope to purposes related specifically to the spiritual life.

First, it was not a way of salvation. The purpose of the Mosaic Law never was, is not, and never will be a means of salvation (Rom. 3:20; Gal. 3:11).

Secondly, the purpose of the Mosaic Law was to provide the Jewish people with a rule of life in all areas of life. If the spiritual Israelite wished to know what his obligations were as a believer before God, they were all contained in the Mosaic Law. The Law of Moses was to provide a rule of life in all areas of life for a redeemed people. It was not intended to bring them to redemption, but to provide a rule of life for them after having been redeemed.

Thirdly, the purpose of the Mosaic Law was to serve as a tutor (Gal. 3:24). The Greek word for tutor is the origin of the English word “pedagogue.” It literally means “a child disciplinarian.” This is what the Mosaic Law was: to lead a Jewish person to the Messiah.

Again, there are many other purposes of the Mosaic Law, but these three are specifically concerned with its purpose in relation to the spiritual life. Other Ariel Ministries Messianic Bible Studies are available which discuss this more fully.

2. The Content

First, the Law of Moses contained a complete system, setting forth the entire will of God for the individual Israelite as well as for the whole nation.

Secondly, it dealt with specific areas of life, and these are identified by three different terms. It included commandments (Ex. 20:1–17). These are normally, though not exclusively, related to the moral issues of the Mosaic Law. It also contained judgments (Ex. 21:1–24:11). These were concerned with civil issues. There were also ordinances, which covered religious issues (Ex. 24:12–31:18).

Thirdly, the Law of Moses also contained a conditional element or an element of merit (Deut. 28:1–68), so that there were blessings for obedience, but curses for disobedience.

3. The Ramifications

Altogether, there were four ramifications of the Mosaic Law.

a. Concerning the Jews

As far as application was concerned, the first ramification was that it was for Jews only. This is where many Jewish and Gentile believers get fouled up; they feel they must be under just some parts of the Law or under a great part of it or, in some cases, under the whole Law except for the sacrifices. But, insofar as the application of the Law is concerned, it was given to Jews only, not to the world at large, and most certainly not to the Church at large!

(1) Deuteronomy 4:8

And what great nation is there, that has statutes and ordinances so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?

These verses clearly say that the Law was given to this nation, the Jewish nation; it was not given to any other nation but this one.

(2) Deuteronomy 5:1–3

And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordinances which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them. Jehovah our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. Jehovah made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.

Notice several things that these verses point out.

First, the message was to Israel (v. 1). These statutes and ordinances in the Law of Moses were given specifically to Israel.

Secondly, the emphasis is that God made this covenant with the Jewish nation in Horeb, which is the same as Sinai (v. 2). He did not make it with any nation other than the Jewish nation. It was strictly limited to the Jews.

Thirdly, God did not even make it with any previous Jewish generation (v. 3). It was not made with our fathers. It was unique to the Jewish generation that began with Moses, and continued on until the coming of the Messiah. This same point is also emphasized in the New Testament: that this Law was given specifically to the Jewish people and not to the Gentiles at large, and certainly not to the Church per se.

(3) Romans 2:14

for when Gentiles that have not the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are the law unto themselves.

The point of this verse is that the Gentiles were not given the Law, although by nature, they kept many of its commandments; such as: You shall not kill (Ex. 20:13). However, Paul clearly stated that the Law was not given to them; they did not have the Law of Moses.

(4) Romans 9:4–5

who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

Clearly, the Israelites were the people to whom the law was given. Theirs was also the service of God, the levitical system.

(5) Ephesians 2:11–12

Wherefore remember, that once ye, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called Circumcision, in the flesh, made by hands; that ye were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world.

Here again, Paul re-emphasizes the fact that the Law was given to the Jewish people and not to the Gentiles. That is why they were strangers and “far off.” Therefore, the application of the Law of Moses is exclusively to the Jews.

b. Concerning Proselytes to Judaism

The second ramification of the Law is that it was never given to Gentiles as Gentiles, but only as proselytes to Judaism. If a Gentile became a proselyte to Judaism, he obligated himself to keep the whole Mosaic Law. It was only as a proselyte to Judaism that the Law had any application whatsoever to a Gentile.

c. Concerning the Rule of Life for a Believing Israelite

A third ramification is that the Law did not serve to institute a right relationship between Israel and God. It was a rule of life for a believing Israelite; it did not serve as a means of attaining a relationship with God. However, once an Israelite had obtained a spiritual relationship with God by faith, then the Law was his rule of life. In cases of failure to do what the Law demanded, sacrifices became the means of restoration both individually and nationally.

d. Concerning the Addition of the Law to the Abrahamic Covenant

The fourth ramification is that the Law was an addition (Gal. 3:19). In order to augment sin with the characteristic of transgression and to show “the exceeding sinfulness of sin,” the Law was added to the Abrahamic Covenant. The Law is righteous (Rom. 7:12–14), but the Law also provokes sin (Rom. 7:8). As a rule of life, it also became a curse (Gal. 3:10), leading to condemnation (2 Cor. 3:9) and death (Rom. 7:10–11).

4. The Duration of the Law

Briefly, the Law began with Moses at Sinai (Ex. 19:3–8; Deut. 5:1–3) and terminated with the coming of Yeshua (Jesus) (Gal. 3:19).


“What is going to be the believer’s rule of life in the Messianic Kingdom?” There will be a new system of law, which we can call Millennial Law or Kingdom Law. As every rule of life is based upon a specific covenant, the new system of Millennial or Kingdom Law will be based upon the New Covenant. The prophets clearly spoke of the coming of a new law. The New Covenant itself was predicted in Jeremiah 31:31–34, and this covenant becomes the basis for the new law in the Kingdom Period.

Kingdom Law is spoken of in Isaiah 2:3:

And many peoples shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem.

In the Messianic Kingdom, out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. This is a new law. The same point is reaffirmed by Micah 4:2, which is a quotation of this same verse in Isaiah.

Later, Isaiah 51:4 states:

Attend unto me, O my people; and give ear unto me, O my nation: for a law shall go forth from me, and I will establish my justice for a light of the peoples.

Here again, Isaiah points out that in the Kingdom, when the Messiah is ruling, a [new] law shall go forth …, and [it] will establish [His] justice. Furthermore, it will provide spiritual light for the [Gentile nations in the Messianic Kingdom]. Very clearly, then, there will be a new system of Millennial or Kingdom Law that will become the believer’s rule of life in the Kingdom.

As far as the details are concerned, one example of the content of Millennial or Kingdom Law is Ezekiel 40:5–46:24, which spells out the rules and regulations for the millennial system of priesthood and sacrifice. Although some have misunderstood this section to mean a re-institution of the Mosaic system, that is not the case. The Mosaic Law will never be re-instituted for the church saint today, nor for the millennial saints in the future. A comparison of the details of the sacrifices in Ezekiel with those of the Mosaic system shows too many differences. In fact, if the Mosaic Law were re-instituted in the Kingdom, then what Ezekiel has to say will actually violate the Mosaic Law in certain aspects. The millennial system of priesthood and sacrifices should not be viewed as a re-institution of the Mosaic Law, but rather, as what it really is: a new system of priesthood and sacrifice that has both similarities and dissimilarities to the Mosaic Law. It is part of the Millennial or Kingdom Law, not the Mosaic Law.


“What is the believer’s rule of life today?” This will be discussed in six areas.

A. The Bases

1. The Law of the Messiah

The first basis of the rule of life for the church saint today is: the law of Christ (Gal. 6:2). Just as the Law of Moses was known by other names; such as, the law of God (Josh. 24:26; Neh. 8:8; Rom. 2:22; 8:7) and the law of Jehovah (2 Kg. 10:31; 1 Chr. 16:40; Ps. 1:2; Is. 30:9), so the law of Christ also has other names in the New Testament. In Romans 8:2, it is called the law of the Spirit of life; in James 1:25, it is given two names: the perfect law and the law of liberty; in James 2:12, it is again called a law of liberty.

It is called the law of Christ, because it is a law given to us by Him rather than by Moses or by Noah or whomever.

It is called the law of the Spirit of life, because the indwelling Holy Spirit enables us to live according to its demands so that we can live the spiritual life.

It is called the perfect law, because it does not contain the flaws of the Mosaic Law. According to the Book of Hebrews, the Mosaic Law was flawed by weakness in that it was unable to provide the Old Testament saint with the power to keep it.

It is called the law of liberty, because this law liberates us from the Law of Moses; it liberates us from the curse of the Law.

The basis for the rule of life for the church saint is, first and foremost, the Law of the Messiah. Just as the Law of Moses had many commandments, the Law of the Messiah also has many commandments, which we are obligated to obey.

2. The Eternal Principles of the Old Testament

The second basis for the rule of life for the church saint is the eternal principles of the Old Testament. While we are no longer under the specific 613 commandments of the Law of Moses, nevertheless, there are many things in the Old Testament that have to do with eternal principles, and these are still obligatory. One example of an eternal principle still applicable to us today is that God will always punish sin.

It is wrong, as some people teach, to say that we no longer have any obligation to the Old Testament. This is true as far as the Law of Moses is concerned, but that is only a small part of the entire Old Testament. A great amount of its material still applies to us; such as, the Noahic Covenant, the Adamic Covenant, and the Abrahamic Covenant. Many eternal principles, taught by the poets of Israel in the Books of Psalms and Proverbs, and many things in the Prophets are not rooted in the Mosaic Law, but in eternal principles; and they are still as obligatory as they ever were.

Therefore, for the church saint there are two bases for the rule of life: the Law of the Messiah and the eternal principles of the Old Testament.

B. The Divine Enablement

The second area of the rule of life for the church saint is that divine enablement is promised in a manner not provided for the Old Testament saint (Jn. 7:37–39; Acts 1:8; Rom. 5:5; 6:4; 8:3–4, 9; 1 Cor. 2:1–13; 6:19; 10:3–6; Gal. 3:2; 1 Thes. 4:8; 1 Jn. 3:24; 4:13).

C. The Manner of Life: Like-Mindedness with the Messiah

“Whom should we be imitating?” If we are imitating Yeshua the Messiah, that will produce the likeness of the Messiah.

For example, Romans 8:29 states:

For whom he foreknew, he also foreordained to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.

According to this verse, our goal is to be conformed to the image of the Son of God. This is true likeness of the Messiah. Later, in Philippians 2:5, Paul admonished us to:

Have this mind in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.

We should have like-mindedness with the Messiah, which means being Messiah-like.

A similar point is made in 1 Peter 2:21:

For hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, that ye should follow his steps.

This is in the context of suffering. Since He was willing to suffer, we should be willing to suffer for the faith; He is our example. This also emphasizes the manner of life which is Messiah-like.

And one more example is 1 John 4:17: Herein is love made perfect with us, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment; because as he is, even so are we in this world.

Just as Jesus was in the world, but is no longer of the world; even so we are in this world, but are no longer of it. Once again, the emphasis is likeness to the Messiah in this issue.

D. The Grace of God

While we are to imitate Him and become Messiah-like, it is the grace of God that produces this in the believer. This is consistently taught in the Scriptures of the New Testament: Romans 12:3–8; 15:15; 1 Corinthians 1:4; 3:10; 15:10; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 4:15; 6:1–3; 8:1, 6, 9; 9:8, 14; 12:9; Galatians 2:9; Ephesians 3:2–8; 4:7, 29; Philippians 1:7; Colossians 3:16; 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Timothy 2:1; Hebrews 4:16; 12:15; James 4:6; 2 Peter 3:18. All these verses emphasize and re-emphasize that it is the grace of God that produces the likeness of the Messiah in the believer.

E. The Areas of the Believer’s Rule of Life Today

Just as the Law of Moses once covered many areas of a Old Testament saint’s life, so the Law of the Messiah pertains to many areas of a church saint’s life today. There are seven specific areas, which the Law of the Messiah covers in the believer’s rule of life.

1. The Relationship to Human Government

There is both a proper and an improper subjection in this area. As long as the civil law does not command us or ask us to do anything, which goes contrary to Scripture, we should obey. It may not be our way of doing things; we may wish we did not have to do it; we may not follow their philosophy; it may not follow our own particular political frame of reference; but regardless of all that, if the civil government passes a law which in no way violates Scripture, we are to obey it whether we like it or not. This is proper subjection to human government. Some examples of this are found in Romans 13:1–7; 1 Peter 2:13–17; Titus 3:1.

There is also improper subjection when we are expected to comply with something which does clearly contradict Scripture. Examples of improper subjection include Acts 4:19–20 and 5:29. If the government tells us that we cannot preach the gospel, then we disobey that law. If the government says we need to have an abortion; we disobey that law. If the government says we should go out and kill a particular group of people; we do not obey that law. When the Nazi government in Germany passed resolutions that Jews should be exterminated, no German believer should have obeyed that law. If he were a true believer, he could not have obeyed it unless he was terribly out of fellowship with God.

One more thing about subjection to human government is that there are ways by which we can use the law properly. For example, if we can legally protest, we can use the law to protest an action as Paul did in Acts 16:37–40, when he used the law to protest an official action by the civil authorities. Since the United States Constitution allows its citizens to organize protests against abortions, they have the right to protest publicly. The Constitution allows any law of the government to be challenged through the courts of the United States; therefore, the law can be properly used by way of protest. Another way of properly using the law is for gaining rights; we have the right to use the law to gain our rights. Examples of this are Acts 22:25–29; 23:1–10; 25:10–12; 26:32. Where the law allows us to gain our rights, we should use it.

2. The Relationship to Courts of Law

The key passage here is 1 Corinthians 6:1–11, which points out three things. First, believers are not allowed to take other believers before the civil court. Secondly, this prohibition does not apply to unbelievers; if necessary, we may take unbelievers to court. Thirdly, believers should always treat other believers in such a way that no legal actions are necessary.

3. The Relationship of Masters and Servants

This New Testament terminology could be re-stated today as “employer and employee” relationships. The two basic passages for this are Ephesians 6:5–9 and Colossians 3:22–4:1. The believer must be in subjection to his employer, even if his employer is a mean, crooked, unethical man. As long as he does not ask the believing employee to do anything illegal or unethical, the employee must obey. If a believing employee finds himself in a situation where he is unable to obey, he has only one other option: to resign and find a new job. Strikes against an employer are not a valid biblical option for the believer today. If a believer finds himself unable to submit to his employer or unable to accept a situation, he should resign and find another job or begin his own company, but striking is not a biblical option.

4. The Relationship to the Work Ethic

The New Testament clearly expects believers to work for a living. In 1 Thessalonians 4:11–12, Paul admonished the believers: to work with [their] hands. In 2 Thessalonians 3:6–15, Paul taught the principle: If any will not work, neither let him eat (v. 10). While the local church does have a responsibility to help meet the needs of a member who is out of work because of circumstances beyond his control, the church is not obliged to help anyone who is not willing to work. If a believer chooses not to work or refuses a job because it is not to his liking, the church has no obligation to him. A believer is responsible for supporting his own family. If he cannot find a job to his liking, then he should work at something not to his liking. The church has no obligation to meet the needs of a lazy believer.

5. The Relationship of Husband and Wife

The key passages are Ephesians 5:22–33; Colossians 3:18–19; and 1 Peter 3:1–7. Without going through all the details, the principles are: the wife is to be in subjection to her husband, regardless of whether he is a believer or not. The husband is not to beat his wife into subjection or force her into subjection, but to love her into subjection.

6. The Relationship of Parent and Child

The two examples are Ephesians 6:1–4 and Colossians 3:20–21. Whereas children are to obey their parents, the parents are not to cause their children to become unnecessarily angry; they are to exercise discipline with love.

7. The Relationship to the Church

Here, the New Testament has a great deal to say, and deals with this subject in six areas.

First, there must be submission to the elders of the church (1 Thes. 5:12–13; Heb. 13:7, 17).

Secondly, the church is responsible for carrying out evangelism (Acts 1:8; Rom. 1:14, 16; 2 Cor. 5:18–20), and it has to be to the Jew first (Rom. 1:16).

Thirdly, the church is responsible to love the brethren (Jn. 13:34–35; Rom. 12:9–10; Eph. 4:1–3; 5:2; 1 Thes. 4:9; Heb. 13:1; 1 Pet. 3:8–9; 4:8–9; 1 Jn. 3:14, 17; 4:7, 11).

Fourthly, believers have obligations to their fellow believers (1 Cor. 12:26; Eph. 4:31–32; 5:21; 6:18; Phil. 2:3–4; Col. 3:12–13; 1 Thes. 4:6; 5:11; Jas. 4:11; 5:16; 1 Pet. 5:5).

Fifth, strong believers have special responsibilities toward weak believers (Rom. 14:1–23).

Sixth, the spiritual believer has responsibilities toward erring believers (Rom. 16:17–18); he is to mark them out and make sure they cause no divisions; he is to seek their restoration (Gal. 6:1); he is to admonish them (1 Thes. 5:14); and he is to withdraw from them if they persist in their erring ways (2 Thes. 3:6, 11–15).

F. The Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments are part of the Mosaic Law, consequently, along with the other 603 commandments, they have been done away with. We are now under the Law of the Messiah, and we are required to obey only the commands of the Law of the Messiah. We must obey whichever commandments are found in the Law of Moses that are also found in the Law of the Messiah. But those Mosaic commandments that are not found in the Law of the Messiah, we have no obligation to obey. We may choose to if we so wish, but there is no longer any requirement to obey the Law of Moses as such.

Of the Ten Commandments, nine of them are also part of the Law of the Messiah; therefore, only nine of the ten are obligatory for believers.

The first commandment, which is against having other gods, is found in the Law of the Messiah in Acts 14:15.

The second commandment, which is against images made to be worshipped, is found in 1 John 5:21.

The third commandment, which is against taking the name of the Lord your God in vain, is taught in James 5:12.

The fourth commandment was: Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. This commandment is nowhere repeated in the Law of the Messiah. That is why the believer has no obligation to keep the Sabbath today.

The fifth commandment was to honor your parents, and this is also taught in Ephesians 6:1.

The sixth commandment, which is against murder, is taught in 1 John 3:15.

The seventh commandment, which is against adultery, is found in 1 Corinthians 6:9–10.

The eighth commandment, which is against stealing, is found in Ephesians 4:28.

The ninth commandment, which is against bearing false witness, is found in Colossians 3:9.

The tenth commandment, which is against coveting, is found in Ephesians 5:3.

Nine of the original Ten Commandments are found in the Law of the Messiah, and that is why we must obey them. But the commandment relating to the Sabbath is not found anywhere in the Law of the Messiah.

If you have any questions please contact us:

Recent Posts