Yeshua: The Life of Messiah from a Messianic Jewish Perspective – The Abridged Version

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Yeshua: The Life of Messiah from a Messianic Jewish Perspective – The Abridged Version
by Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum
ISRAEL’S MESSIANIC KING

During His ministry to the Jewish people, Yeshua (Jesus) journeyed throughout the land promised to the Jewish patriarchs, presenting Himself to the Jews as their Messiah. He was a Jew living in a Jewish land among the Jewish people. Yet, much of the knowledge of this Jewish society, its culture and traditions have grown dim with the passage of time. In this work, Dr Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum shines a bright light on the life of Yeshua and the land of Israel during the Second Temple period, interpreting the Gospels from a Messianic Jewish perspective. To achieve this, Dr Fruchtenbaum had done original research in the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek source texts, and has also drawn on the works of other scholars and the writings of ancient rabbis.</p>

It has taken about four decades of research and work for the account of the life and ministry of Yeshua the Messiah to come into its present form, published by Ariel Ministries in four volumes and an abridged version. The abridgment contains essentially the same material as the multi-volume set but excludes the source texts for Dr Fruchtenbaum’s teaching. Ariel’s Harmony of the Gospels provides the framework for his exegesis.

Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum holds a B.A. degree from Cedarville University in Hebrew and Hellenistics, a Th.M. degree in Hebrew and Old Testament Studies from Dallas Theological Seminary, and received his PhD from New York University with the completion of his dissertation, Israelology: The Missing Link in Systematic Theology. He is the founding director of Ariel Ministries and a much respected biblical authority in evangelical and messianic circles.

  • The Abridged Version
  • Dimensions: 6” x 9”
  • 712 pages
  • ISBN: 978-935174-75-2

Available on back-order

Description

Foreword and Acknowledgements ……………………………………………….. XXV
Index of Names ……………………………………………………………………….. XXVII

PREFACE

A. PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE ……………………………………………………………1
B. METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………….3
C. TRANSLATION …………………………………………………………………………….6

INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL
— §§ 1–2 —

A. LUKE’S PROLOGUE: THE SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE —§ 1 ………………………….7
1. The Gospel of Matthew:
Yeshua the Messiah, the King of the Jews ………………………………….. 9
2. The Gospel of Mark:
Yeshua the Messiah, the Servant of Jehovah ……………………………. 10
3. The Gospel of Luke:
Yeshua the Messiah, the Son of Man ……………………………………….. 11
4. The Gospel of John:
Yeshua the Messiah, the Son of God ……………………………………….. 13
B. THE PROLOGUE IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN:
THE PREEXISTENCE OF THE MESSIAH — § 2 ………………………………………… 15
1. The Logos in the Gospel of John ………………………………………………. 15
a. Greek Philosophy ……………………………………………………………….. 15
b. Philonic Writings ………………………………………………………………… 16
2. Six Theological Truths about the Memra ………………………………….. 16
a. Distinct from God, but the Same as God ………………………………. 17
b. The Agent of Creation ………………………………………………………… 17
c. The Agent of Salvation ………………………………………………………… 18

d. The Means by which God Became Visible …………………………….. 18
e. The Means by which God Signed His Covenants ……………………. 20
f. The Agent of Revelation ………………………………………………………. 20
3. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….. 21
4. Additional Aspects of the Prologue ………………………………………….. 22

I. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE KING
— §§ 3–27 —

A. THE ARRIVAL OF THE KING — §§ 3–19 ……………………………………………. 25
1. The Genealogy of the King — § 3 …………………………………………….. 25
a. Why Two Genealogies? ………………………………………………………. 26
b. Matthew’s Account ……………………………………………………………. 27
2. The Advent of the King — §§ 4–11 …………………………………………… 32
a. The Annunciation of Yochanan’s Birth to Zechariah — § 4 …….. 32
(1) The Twenty-Four Courses ………………………………………………. 32
(2) The Message to Zechariah ……………………………………………… 34
(3) Zechariah’s Reaction to the Angels’ Annunciation ……………. 37
b. The Annunciation of Yeshua’s Birth to Miriam — § 5 …………….. 38
(1) The Angel’s Message …………………………………………………….. 39
(2) Miriam’s Question ………………………………………………………… 41
(3) The Angel’s Answer ………………………………………………………. 42
(4) Miriam’s Response ……………………………………………………….. 43
c. The Visit of Miriam to Elizabeth — § 6 ………………………………….. 43
d. The Song of Miriam — § 7 …………………………………………………… 45
e. The Birth of Yochanan — § 8 ……………………………………………….. 47
(1) Yochanan’s Birth …………………………………………………………… 47
(2) Zechariah’s Prophecy…………………………………………………….. 49
(3) God Remembers His Oath ……………………………………………… 49
(4) Yochanan’s Ministry ……………………………………………………… 49
f. The Annunciation of Yeshua’s Birth to Joseph — § 9 ………………. 51
g. The Birth of the King — § 10 ……………………………………………….. 52
(1) The Timing of His Birth ………………………………………………….. 52
(2) The Place of His Birth …………………………………………………….. 53
h. The Announcement to the Shepherds — § 11 ………………………. 55
3. His Infancy and Childhood — §§ 12–19 ……………………………………. 57
a. The Circumcision — § 12 …………………………………………………….. 57

b. The Presentation — § 13 …………………………………………………….. 58
(1) The Presentation…………………………………………………………… 59
(2) Two Encounters ……………………………………………………………. 60
c. His Infancy — §§ 14–16 ………………………………………………………. 63
(1) In Bethlehem — § 14 …………………………………………………….. 63
(2) In Egypt — § 15 …………………………………………………………….. 70
(3) In Nazareth — § 16 ……………………………………………………….. 71
d. His Boyhood — §§ 17–19 ……………………………………………………. 72
(1) His Growth — § 17 ………………………………………………………… 72
(2) The Visit to Jerusalem — § 18 ………………………………………… 74
(3) His Development — § 19 ……………………………………………….. 76
B. THE FORERUNNER AND HERALD OF THE KING — §§ 20–23 ……………………… 78
1. The Message to Yochanan — § 20 …………………………………………… 78
2. The Message by Yochanan — § 21 …………………………………………… 79
3. The Explanation by Yochanan — § 22 ………………………………………. 82
a. Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians …………………………………… 82
b. The Sanhedrin’s Investigation of Messianic Movements ………… 83
c. The Observations ……………………………………………………………….. 84
4. The Promise by Yochanan — § 23 ……………………………………………. 85
C. THE APPROVAL OF THE KING — §§ 24–27 ………………………………………… 87
1. At His Baptism — § 24 …………………………………………………………….. 88
a. Baptism — A Jewish Ritual ………………………………………………….. 88
b. The English Term “Baptism” ………………………………………………… 88
c. Yeshua’s Baptism ……………………………………………………………….. 89
d. The Presence of the Triune God ………………………………………….. 91
2. Through the Temptation — § 25 ……………………………………………… 92
3. By His Herald — §§ 26–27 ………………………………………………………. 97
a. Yochanan’s Testimony before Leaders — § 26 ………………………. 97
b. Yochanan’s Testimony to Yeshua — § 27 ……………………………… 98

II. THE AUTHENTICATION OF THE KING

— §§ 28–57 —

A. ACCEPTANCE OF HIS PERSON — §§ 28–37 ………………………………………. 101
1. The Belief by the First Disciples — § 28 …………………………………… 101
2. The Belief Through the First Miracle — § 29 ……………………………. 105
3. The Sojourn in Capernaum — § 30 …………………………………………. 107

4. The First Possession of the Temple — § 31 ……………………………… 107
5. Acceptance in Judea — §§ 32–33 …………………………………………… 110
a. Faith in His Signs — § 32 ……………………………………………………. 110
b. The Explanation to Nicodemus — § 33 ……………………………….. 111
6. Yochanan’s Witness — § 34 …………………………………………………… 118
7. Yochanan’s Imprisonment — § 35 …………………………………………. 120
8. The Acceptance in Samaria — § 36 ………………………………………… 121
9. The Acceptance in Galilee — § 37 ………………………………………….. 128
B. THE AUTHORITY OF THE KING — §§ 38–57 ……………………………………… 128
1. Messiah’s Authority to Preach — § 38 ……………………………………. 128
2. The Messiah’s Authority to Heal — § 39 …………………………………. 129
3. The Initial Rejection in Nazareth — § 40 …………………………………. 131
4. The Headquarters in Capernaum — § 41 ………………………………… 134
5. Messiah’s Authority over Demons — § 42 ………………………………. 135
6. Messiah’s Authority over Disease — § 43 ……………………………….. 136
a. The Healing of Peter’s Mother-in-Law ………………………………… 136
b. The Evening after the Sabbath …………………………………………… 137
7. Messiah’s Authority to Preach — § 44 ……………………………………. 140
8. Messiah’s Authority over Nature — § 45 ………………………………… 141
9. Messiah’s Authority over Defilement:
The Healing of the Jewish Leper — § 46 …………………………………. 142
a. Hansen’s Disease ……………………………………………………………… 142
b. A Very Special Miracle ………………………………………………………. 143
10. Messiah’s Authority to Forgive Sin — § 47 ……………………………. 148
a. The Investigation………………………………………………………………. 148
b. The Source of Yeshua’s Authority ………………………………………. 150
11. Messiah’s Authority over Men — § 48 ………………………………….. 152
12. Messiah’s Authority over Tradition — § 49 …………………………… 154
13. Messiah’s Authority over the Sabbath — §§ 50–52 ……………….. 159
a. Through the Healing of a Paralytic — § 50 ………………………….. 159
(1) The Physical Healing ……………………………………………………. 160
(2) The Spiritual Healing ……………………………………………………. 160
(3) The Defense ……………………………………………………………….. 162
(4) The Fourfold Witness ………………………………………………….. 163
b. Through the Controversy over Grain — § 51 ………………………. 164
c. Through the Healing of a Man with a Withered Hand — § 52 .. 166
14. Messiah’s Authority to Heal — § 53 ……………………………………… 168
15. The Choosing of the Twelve — § 54 ……………………………………… 168

16. Messiah’s Authority to Interpret the Law — § 55 ………………….. 173
a. The Occasion ……………………………………………………………………. 175
b. The Characteristics of True Righteousness ………………………….. 176
(1) Characteristics of Those Who Attain ……………………………… 176
(2) Characteristics of Those Who Fail …………………………………. 178
(3) Characteristics in Relation to the World ………………………… 178
c. The Code of True Righteousness ………………………………………… 179
(1) Introduction ……………………………………………………………….. 179
(2) The Examples ……………………………………………………………… 181
d. The Conduct of True Righteousness …………………………………… 185
(1) Introduction ……………………………………………………………….. 185
(2) The Examples ……………………………………………………………… 185
e. The Practice of True Righteousness ……………………………………. 188
(1) Concerning Money ……………………………………………………… 188
(2) Concerning Anxiety ……………………………………………………… 189
(3) Concerning Judging ……………………………………………………… 190
(4) Concerning Prayer ………………………………………………………. 191
(5) The Core of Practice of True Righteousness …………………… 192
f. The Warnings Concerning True Righteousness …………………….. 192
(1) The Two Ways …………………………………………………………….. 192
(2) The Two Trees …………………………………………………………….. 193
(3) The Two Professions ……………………………………………………. 193
(4) The Two Builders ………………………………………………………… 194
g. The Conclusion …………………………………………………………………. 194
17. Recognition of Authority in Capernaum — § 56 …………………….. 195
18. Recognition of Authority Throughout the Land — § 57 ………….. 197

III. THE CONTROVERSY OVER THE KING

— §§ 58–73 —

A. THE REJECTION OF THE HERALD — § 58 ………………………………………….. 201
B. CURSES ON CITIES OF GALILEE — § 59 ……………………………………………. 205
1. The Condemnation for Unbelief …………………………………………….. 205
2. The Explanation of Unbelief ………………………………………………….. 207
3. The Invitation to Belief and Discipleship …………………………………. 207
C. THE RECEPTION BY A SINNER — § 60 ……………………………………………… 208
D. THE WITNESS OF THE KING TO WOMEN — § 61 ………………………………… 210

E. THE REJECTION OF THE KING BY THE LEADERS — §§ 62–63 …………………… 211
1. The Unpardonable Sin — § 62 ……………………………………………….. 211
a. The Rejection …………………………………………………………………… 211
b. The Defense …………………………………………………………………….. 214
c. The Judgment …………………………………………………………………… 214
2. The New Policy Concerning Signs — § 63 ……………………………….. 218
a. The Sign for that Generation ……………………………………………… 218
b. The Judgment of that Generation ………………………………………. 219
F. REVELATION IN VIEW OF REJECTION — §§ 64–70 ……………………………… 220
1. The Course of the Kingdom Program in the Present Age — § 64 . 222
a. Introduction …………………………………………………………………….. 222
(1) The Purpose of Parables ………………………………………………. 222
(2) The Definition of Parables ……………………………………………. 224
(3) God’s Kingdom Program ………………………………………………. 225
b. The Parable of the Sower ………………………………………………….. 232
c. The Parable of the Seed …………………………………………………….. 233
d. The Parable of the Tares……………………………………………………. 233
e. The Parable of the Mustard Seed……………………………………….. 234
f. The Parable of the Leaven ………………………………………………….. 234
2. The Repudiation of all Earthly Relations — § 65 ………………………. 235
3. The Course of the Kingdom Program in the Present Age — § 66 . 236
a. Explanation of the Parable of the Tares ………………………………. 236
b. The Parable of the Hidden Treasure …………………………………… 236
c. The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price ……………………………….. 237
d. The Parable of the Net ……………………………………………………… 237
e. The Parable of the Householder ………………………………………… 238
f. The Progression of the Mystery Kingdom — A Summary ………. 238
4. Power over Nature — § 67 ……………………………………………………. 239
5. Power over Demons — § 68 ………………………………………………….. 241
6. Power over Disease and Death — § 69 …………………………………… 244
7. Power over Blindness — § 70 ………………………………………………… 247
G. THE FINAL REJECTION IN NAZARETH — § 71 …………………………………….. 248
H. WITNESS IN VIEW OF REJECTION — § 72 ………………………………………… 249
1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………. 250
2. Practical Instructions for the Mission ……………………………………… 251
3. Instruction in View of the Coming Persecution ……………………….. 253
4. Instruction in View of Rejection …………………………………………….. 255
5. The Results of the Rejection ………………………………………………….. 256

6. Rewards for Individuals Who Accept………………………………………. 257
7. The Fulfillment …………………………………………………………………….. 258
I. THE DEATH OF THE HERALD — § 73 ………………………………………………. 258

IV. THE TRAINING OF THE TWELVE BY THE KING

— §§ 74–98 —

A. THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND — § 74 …………………………………… 262
B. MESSIAH’S REJECTION OF THE GALILEANS’OFFER
TO MAKE HIM KING — § 75 ………………………………………………………. 265
C. THE TRAINING THROUGH THE STORM — § 76 ……………………………………. 266
D. THE RECEPTION IN GENNESARET — § 77 …………………………………………. 268
E. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE BREAD OF LIFE — § 78 ……………………….. 269
F. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING DEFILEMENT — § 79 ……………………………….. 274
G. THE RECEPTION IN TYRE AND SIDON — § 80 …………………………………….. 278
H. THE RECEPTION IN DECAPOLIS — § 81 ……………………………………………. 280
I. THE REJECTION IN MAGADAN — § 82 ……………………………………………. 282
J. THE WARNING AGAINST REJECTION — § 83 ……………………………………… 283
K. THE HEALING OF THE BLIND MAN — § 84 ……………………………………….. 284
L. THE CONFESSION OF PETER — § 85……………………………………………….. 286
1. The Confession …………………………………………………………………….. 286
2. Five Statements about Peter …………………………………………………. 287
a. The Source of Peter’s Knowledge ………………………………………. 287
b. The Foundation of the Church …………………………………………… 287
c. The Gates of Hades …………………………………………………………… 289
d. The Keys of the Kingdom …………………………………………………… 289
e. Binding and Loosing ………………………………………………………….. 290
3. Yeshua’s Closing Statement …………………………………………………… 292
M. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE DEATH OF THE KING — § 86 ………………… 292
N. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE KINGDOM — §§ 87–88 ……………………… 295
1. The Promise of Revelation — § 87 …………………………………………. 295
2. The Transfiguration: The Revelation of the Kingdom — § 88 ……. 296
O. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING ELIJAH — § 89 ………………………………………. 302
P. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING FAITH — § 90 ……………………………………….. 304
Q. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE DEATH OF THE KING — § 91 …………………. 306
R. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING SONSHIP — § 92 ……………………………………. 307
S. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING HUMILITY — § 93 …………………………………… 308

T. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING EXCLUSIVENESS AND PRIDE — § 94 ……………… 310
U. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING FORGIVENESS — § 95 ……………………………… 313
V. THE CHALLENGE BY THE BROTHERS — § 96 ……………………………………… 316
W. THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM — § 97 ……………………………………………. 317
X. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING DISCIPLESHIP — § 98 ………………………………. 319

V. THE OPPOSITION TO THE KING
— §§ 99–112 —

A. THE CONFLICT AT THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES — § 99 ………………………… 324
1. Messiah’s Authority Questioned ……………………………………………. 325
2. Messiah’s Answer…………………………………………………………………. 326
3. Messiah’s Person Questioned ……………………………………………….. 327
4. Messiah’s Explanation …………………………………………………………… 327
5. The People’s Response …………………………………………………………. 328
6. Messiah’s Invitation ……………………………………………………………… 329
7. The Pharisaic Response …………………………………………………………. 330
B. THE CONFLICT OVER THE LAW — § 100 ………………………………………….. 331
C. THE CONFLICT OVER THE LIGHT — § 101 ………………………………………… 334
D. THE CONFLICT OVER HIS PERSON — § 102 ………………………………………. 335
1. Messiah the True Object of Faith …………………………………………… 335
2. Messiah the True Deliverer ……………………………………………………. 336
a. From Sin ………………………………………………………………………….. 336
b. From Satan ………………………………………………………………………. 337
c. From Death ……………………………………………………………………… 339
E. THE CONFLICT OVER THE HEALING OF A MAN BORN BLIND — § 103 ………… 340
1. Physical Healing ……………………………………………………………………. 340
2. The First Interrogation ………………………………………………………….. 344
3. The Interrogation of the Parents ……………………………………………. 345
4. The Second Interrogation ……………………………………………………… 346
5. Spiritual Healing …………………………………………………………………… 347
F. THE CONFLICT OVER THE SHEPHERD — § 104 …………………………………… 348
1. Messiah the True Shepherd …………………………………………………… 348
2. Messiah the Door …………………………………………………………………. 349

3. Messiah the Good Shepherd …………………………………………………. 349
4. Division ……………………………………………………………………………….. 350
G. THE WITNESS OF THE SEVENTY — § 105 …………………………………………. 350
1. The Seventy Sent ………………………………………………………………….. 351
2. The Seventy Return ………………………………………………………………. 353
3. Messiah’s Prayer ………………………………………………………………….. 353
H. THE CONFLICT OVER THE QUESTION OF ETERNAL LIFE — § 106 ……………….. 354
I. THE EXAMPLE OF FELLOWSHIP — § 107 ………………………………………….. 356
J. INSTRUCTION IN PRAYER — § 108 ………………………………………………… 357
K. THE CONFLICT OVER THE HEALING OF THE DUMB MAN — § 109 ……………… 358
1. The Charge…………………………………………………………………………… 359
2. The Defense …………………………………………………………………………. 359
3. The Condition of the Nation ………………………………………………….. 360
4. The Sign to that Generation …………………………………………………… 360
5. The Call to the Nation …………………………………………………………… 361
L. THE CONFLICT OVER PHARISAIC RITUALISM — § 110 …………………………… 361
M. INSTRUCTION OF THE DISCIPLES — § 111 ………………………………………… 363
1. Hypocrisy …………………………………………………………………………….. 364
2. Covetousness ………………………………………………………………………. 365
a. Occasion ………………………………………………………………………….. 365
b. Instruction ……………………………………………………………………….. 366
c. Application ………………………………………………………………………. 367
3. Watchfulness ……………………………………………………………………….. 368
4. Faithfulness …………………………………………………………………………. 368
5. The Effects of His Coming ……………………………………………………… 369
6. The Signs of the Times ………………………………………………………….. 370
7. Concerning Repentance ………………………………………………………… 371
8. Concerning Israel’s Need ………………………………………………………. 372
9. Concerning the Kingdom Program …………………………………………. 373
N. THE CONFLICT AT THE FEAST OF DEDICATION — § 112 …………………………. 374

VI. THE PREPARATION OF THE DISCIPLES BY THE KING

— §§ 113–131 —

A. THE WITHDRAWAL FROM JUDAH — § 113 ………………………………………. 378
B. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING ENTRANCE INTO THE KINGDOM — § 114 ……….. 378

C. INSTRUCTION IN A PHARISEE’S HOUSE — § 115 ………………………………… 380
1. True Sabbath Rest ………………………………………………………………… 380
2. Humility ………………………………………………………………………………. 381
3. Respect of Persons ……………………………………………………………….. 382
4. The Rejection of the Invitation ………………………………………………. 382
D. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING DISCIPLESHIP — § 116 …………………………….. 384
E. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING GOD’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS SINNERS — § 117 … 385
1. The Occasion ……………………………………………………………………….. 385
2. The Three Parables ……………………………………………………………….. 386
a. The Parable of the Lost Sheep ……………………………………………. 386
b. The Parable of the Lost Coin ……………………………………………… 386
c. The Parable of the Prodigal Son …………………………………………. 387
F. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING WEALTH — § 118 ………………………………….. 388
1. The Parable of the Unjust Steward …………………………………………. 388
2. The Conflict with the Pharisees ……………………………………………… 390
3. The Rich Man and Lazarus …………………………………………………….. 391
G. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING FORGIVENESS — § 119 ……………………………. 395
H. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING SERVICE — § 120 …………………………………… 396
I. THE RESURRECTION OF LAZARUS:
THE FIRST SIGN OF JONAH — §§ 121–123 ……………………………………… 397
1. The Sign of Resurrection — § 121 ………………………………………….. 397
a. The Death of Lazarus ………………………………………………………… 397
b. Yeshua and Marta …………………………………………………………….. 399
c. Yeshua and Miriam …………………………………………………………… 399
d. Yeshua and Lazarus ………………………………………………………….. 400
2. The Rejection of the First Sign of Jonah — § 122 ……………………… 402
3. Instruction in Light of Rejection — § 123 ………………………………… 403
a. The Personal Witness to Caiaphas ……………………………………… 403
b. The New Form of the Kingdom Program …………………………….. 404
c. Instruction Concerning the Second Coming …………………………. 405
J. INSTRUCTION IN PRAYER — § 124 ………………………………………………… 407
K. INSTRUCTION ON DIVORCE — § 125 ……………………………………………… 409
L. INSTRUCTION ON ENTRANCE INTO THE KINGDOM — § 126 …………………… 412
M. INSTRUCTION ON ETERNAL LIFE — § 127 ……………………………………….. 412
N. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING HIS DEATH — § 128 ……………………………….. 417
O. THE HEALING OF THE BLIND MEN — § 129 ……………………………………… 419

P. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE KINGDOM PROGRAM — §§ 130–131 ……… 421
1. Personal Faith — § 130 …………………………………………………………. 421
2. Postponed Kingdom — § 131 ………………………………………………… 423

VII. THE OFFICIAL PRESENTATION OF THE KING

— §§ 132–144 —

A. THE ARRIVAL IN BETHANY — § 132 ………………………………………………. 425
B. THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY:
THE SETTING ASIDE OF THE PASSOVER LAMB — § 133 …………………………. 427
1. The Significance of the Triumphal Entry………………………………….. 427
2. In Fulfillment of Passover ………………………………………………………. 428
3. The Palm Branches ……………………………………………………………….. 429
4. The Response of the Pharisees ………………………………………………. 430
5. Yeshua’s Acceptance …………………………………………………………….. 431
C. THE AUTHORITY OF THE KING — §§ 134–135 ………………………………….. 432
1. The Cursing of the Fig Tree — § 134 ………………………………………. 432
2. The Second Possession of the Temple — § 135 ……………………….. 433
D. THE INVITATIONS BY THE KING — § 136 ………………………………………….. 435
1. The Two Invitations ………………………………………………………………. 435
2. Yochanan’s Summary of Messiah’s Ministry ……………………………. 437
a. Summary of Israel …………………………………………………………….. 437
b. Summary of Yeshua ………………………………………………………….. 437
E. THE PROOF OF AUTHORITY — § 137 ……………………………………………… 438
F. THE AUTHORITY OF THE KING CHALLENGED:
THE TESTING OF THE LAMB — §§ 138–141 …………………………………….. 439
1. By Priests and Elders — § 138 ……………………………………………….. 440
a. The Attack ……………………………………………………………………….. 440
b. The Answer ……………………………………………………………………… 441
(1) The Parable of the Two Sons ………………………………………… 441
(2) The Parable of the Householder …………………………………… 442
(3) The Parable of the Wedding …………………………………………. 444
2. By Pharisees and Herodians — § 139 ……………………………………… 445
a. The Attack ……………………………………………………………………….. 446
b. The Answer ……………………………………………………………………… 446i

3. By Sadducees — § 140 ………………………………………………………….. 447
a. The Attack ……………………………………………………………………….. 448
b. The Answer ……………………………………………………………………… 448
4. By Pharisees — § 141 ……………………………………………………………. 451
a. The Attack ……………………………………………………………………….. 451
b. The Answer ……………………………………………………………………… 451
G. THE CHALLENGE BY THE KING — § 142 …………………………………………… 452
H. THE JUDGMENT BY THE KING — § 143 …………………………………………… 453
1. To the Disciples and Multitudes …………………………………………….. 453
2. To the Pharisees …………………………………………………………………… 457
3. The Lament ………………………………………………………………………….. 459
I. INSTRUCTION AT THE TREASURY — § 144 ……………………………………….. 461

VIII. THE PREPARATION FOR THE DEATH OF THE KING

— §§ 145–164 —

A. THE OLIVET DISCOURSE: THE PROPHECIES OF THE KING — § 145 ……………. 463
1. The Historical Setting ……………………………………………………………. 464
2. The Three Questions …………………………………………………………….. 465
3. The General Characteristics of the Age
Between the Two Comings ……………………………………………………. 467
4. The Sign of the End of the Age ………………………………………………. 468
5. The Personal Experiences of the Apostles ………………………………. 470
6. The Sign of the Fall of Jerusalem ……………………………………………. 472
7. The Great Tribulation ……………………………………………………………. 474
a. The First Half ……………………………………………………………………. 474
b. The Second Half ……………………………………………………………….. 475
(1) The Abomination of Desolation ……………………………………. 475
(2) Israel’s Flight from the Land …………………………………………. 476
(3) Unparalleled Global Anti-Semitism ……………………………….. 477
(4) The Survival of the Jewish People …………………………………. 478
(5) False Messiahs ……………………………………………………………. 479
(6) The Rise of False Prophets ……………………………………………. 479
(7) Rumors of Yeshua’s Return ………………………………………….. 479
(8) The Place of the Second Coming …………………………………… 479
8. The Second Coming ………………………………………………………………. 480
9. The Regathering of Israel ………………………………………………………. 481

10. The Exhortation ………………………………………………………………….. 483
11. The Parable of the Fig Tree ………………………………………………….. 484
12. The Rapture ……………………………………………………………………….. 487
13. Parables Urging Watchfulness, Readiness, and Diligence ………. 490
a. The Parable of the Porter ………………………………………………….. 490
b. The Parable of the Master of the House ……………………………… 491
c. The Parable of the Faithful Servant and the Evil Servant ………. 491
d. Application ………………………………………………………………………. 491
e. The Parable of the Ten Virgins …………………………………………… 491
f. The Parable of the Talents …………………………………………………. 494
14. The Judgment of the Gentiles ………………………………………………. 495
15. Luke’s Summary …………………………………………………………………. 498
B. THE PREPARATION FOR MESSIAH’S DEATH — §§ 146–160 …………………… 498
1. The Prediction of His Death — § 146 ……………………………………… 498
2. The Conspiracy of the Rulers — § 147 ……………………………………. 498
3. The Pouring of Ointment — § 148 ………………………………………….. 500
4. The Promise to Betray — § 149 ……………………………………………… 501
5. The Last Passover and the First Lord’s Supper — §§ 150–160 …… 503
a. The Preparation for the Seder — § 150 ………………………………. 503
b. The Start of the Passover Observance — § 151 …………………… 506
c. The First Cup — § 152 ……………………………………………………….. 506
d. The Washing of the Feet
and the First Prediction of Betrayal by Judas — § 153 …………. 507
e. Karpas:
The Second Prediction of the Betrayal by Judas — § 154 ……… 510
f. The Breaking of the Middle Matzah — § 155 ……………………….. 511
g. The Sop: The Third Prediction of Judas’ Betrayal — § 156 ……. 513
h. The Third Cup — § 157 ……………………………………………………… 515
i. A Lesson in Greatness — § 158 …………………………………………… 517
j. The Prediction of Peter’s Denial — § 159 …………………………….. 518
k. The Hallel — § 160 ……………………………………………………………. 520
C. THE PROMISES AND ADMONITIONS BY THE KING — §§ 161–162 ……………. 521
1. In the Upper Room — § 161 ………………………………………………….. 523
2. On the Way to Gethsemane — § 162 …………………………………….. 528
3. Admonitions by the King ……………………………………………………….. 534
4. Additional Observations ……………………………………………………….. 540
D. THE HIGH PRIESTLY PRAYER — § 163 …………………………………………….. 541
1. Concerning Himself ………………………………………………………………. 541

2. Concerning the Apostles ……………………………………………………….. 542
a. Preservation …………………………………………………………………….. 542
b. Protection ……………………………………………………………………….. 543
c. Sanctification ……………………………………………………………………. 544
3. Concerning All Believers ……………………………………………………….. 544
a. Unity ……………………………………………………………………………….. 544
b. Glorification …………………………………………………………………….. 545
c. Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………… 546
E. THE AGONY OF GETHSEMANE — § 164 ………………………………………….. 547
1. The Agony ……………………………………………………………………………. 547
2. The Threefold Prayer ……………………………………………………………. 549
3. The Meaning of the Cup ……………………………………………………….. 550
4. Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….. 552

IX. THE TRIAL OF THE KING
— §§ 165–175 —

A. THE ARREST — § 165 ………………………………………………………………. 557
1. Judas …………………………………………………………………………………… 557
2. The Arresting Forces …………………………………………………………….. 558
3. The Great I Am …………………………………………………………………….. 559
4. Peter’s Impetuous Swing ………………………………………………………. 560
B. THE RELIGIOUS TRIAL — §§ 166–170 …………………………………………… 562
1. The Trial before Annas — § 166 …………………………………………….. 562
2. The Trial Before Caiaphas — § 167 …………………………………………. 564
a. The Search for Witnesses ………………………………………………….. 565
b. Caiaphas Takes Charge ……………………………………………………… 566
c. The Verdict and Sentence ………………………………………………….. 567
3. The Denial by Peter — § 168 …………………………………………………. 568
4. The Mockery and Beating — § 169 ………………………………………… 570
5. The Condemnation by the Sanhedrin — § 170 ………………………… 570
C. THE DEATH OF JUDAS — § 171 …………………………………………………… 571
1. Resolving Two Alleged Contradictions ……………………………………. 573
2. Jeremiah or Zechariah? …………………………………………………………. 574
D. THE CIVIL TRIAL — §§ 172–175 …………………………………………………. 577
1. The First Trial Before Pilate — § 172 ………………………………………. 577

a. Attempts to Find an Accusation …………………………………………. 578
b. Sedition …………………………………………………………………………… 579
c. The Conversation with Pilate ……………………………………………… 579
d. Declarations of Innocence …………………………………………………. 581
2. The Trial before Herod Antipas — § 173 …………………………………. 581
3. The Second Trial before Pilate — § 174 ………………………………….. 583
a. Yeshua Bar Abba ………………………………………………………………. 583
b. The Chastisement …………………………………………………………….. 584
c. A New Charge …………………………………………………………………… 586
d. Behold Your King ……………………………………………………………… 588
4. The Mockery — § 175 …………………………………………………………… 589

X. THE DEATH OF THE KING
— §§ 176–181 —

A. THE PROCESSION TO CALVARY — § 176 ………………………………………….. 591
Stage 1: The Messiah Bears the Cross …………………………………….. 591
Stage 2: Simon of Cyrene Forced to Carry the Cross ………………… 592
Stage 3: The Lament Over Jerusalem ……………………………………… 593
Stage 4: The Arrival at Golgotha …………………………………………….. 594
Stage 5: Wine Mingled with Gall and Myrrh ……………………………. 594
B. THE CRUCIFIXION — §§ 177–179 ………………………………………………… 595
1. The First Three Hours: The Wrath of Men — § 177 ………………….. 595
Stage 6: The Crucifixion ………………………………………………………… 595
Stage 7: The First Statement from the Cross …………………………… 598
Stage 8: The Parting of the Garments of Yeshua ……………………… 599
Stage 9: The Superscription …………………………………………………… 600
Stage 10: The Crucifixion of the Other Two …………………………….. 600
Stage 11: The Fifth Mockery ………………………………………………….. 601
Stage 12: The Sixth Mockery …………………………………………………. 601
Stage 13: The Seventh Mockery …………………………………………….. 602
Stage 14: The Eighth Mockery ……………………………………………….. 602
Stage 15: The Conversion of One of the Malefactors ……………….. 602
Stage 16: The Second Statement from the Cross …………………….. 603
Stage 17: The Third Statement from the Cross ………………………… 604

2. The Second Three Hours: The Wrath of God — § 178 ……………… 605
Stage 18: The Darkness over the Whole Land …………………………. 605
Stage 19: The Fourth Statement from the Cross ……………………… 606
Stage 20: The Reaction of the Bystanders ………………………………. 607
Stage 21: The Fifth Statement from the Cross …………………………. 607
Stage 22: The Drinking of the Vinegar …………………………………….. 608
Stage 23: The Sixth Statement from the Cross ………………………… 608
Stage 24: The Seventh Statement from the Cross ……………………. 608
Stage 25: The Death of Yeshua ………………………………………………. 609
3. The Accompanying Signs — § 179 ………………………………………….. 609
Stage 26: The Earth Shakes,
the Dead Are Raised, and the Veil Tears …………………… 609
C. THE BURIAL OF THE MESSIAH — § 180 ………………………………………….. 612
Stage 27: The Breaking of the Bones of the Other Two,
and the Piercing of Yeshua ……………………………………… 613
Stage 28: The Request for the Body ……………………………………….. 614
Stage 29: The Removal of the Body from the Cross …………………. 615
Stage 30: The Burial of Yeshua ………………………………………………. 616
D. THE SEALING OF THE TOMB — § 181 …………………………………………….. 617
Stage 31: The Preparation for the Embalming …………………………. 617
Stage 32: The Sealing of the Tomb …………………………………………. 618
E. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND A MAP …………………………………………….. 619
1. The Day of His Death …………………………………………………………….. 619
2. The Three Days in the Tomb ………………………………………………….. 620
3. Map of Yeshua’s Final Week ………………………………………………….. 622

XI. THE RESURRECTION AND ASCENSION OF THE KING

— §§ 182–197 —

A. THE DAWNING OF RESURRECTION DAY — § 182 ……………………………….. 625
B. THE OPENING OF THE TOMB — § 183 ……………………………………………. 626
C. THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN — § 184 ……………………………………………… 627
D. THE REPORT TO THE APOSTLES — § 185 …………………………………………. 628
E. THE FIRST APPEARANCE: TO MIRIAM MAGDALIT — § 186 …………………… 629
1. Yeshua’s Resurrected Body……………………………………………………. 629
2. Cleansing the Heavenly Tabernacle ………………………………………… 630
F. THE SECOND APPEARANCE: TO THE WOMEN — § 187 ………………………… 632
G. THE REPORT OF THE GUARD:
THE INITIAL REJECTION OF THE SECOND SIGN OF JONAH — § 188 …………….. 632
H. THE THIRD APPEARANCE: TO THE TWO ON THE EMMAUS ROAD — § 189 …… 634
I. THE FOURTH APPEARANCE: TO PETER — § 190 …………………………………. 636
J. THE FIFTH APPEARANCE: TO THE TEN — § 191………………………………….. 636
K. THE SIXTH APPEARANCE: TO THE ELEVEN — § 192 …………………………….. 638
L. THE SEVENTH APPEARANCE: TO THE SEVEN — § 193 ………………………….. 639
1. The Promise of Provision ………………………………………………………. 640
2. The Conversation with Peter …………………………………………………. 641
3. The Closing Words of the Gospel of John………………………………… 643
M. THE EIGHTH APPEARANCE: TO THE FIVE HUNDRED — § 194 …………………. 643
N. THE NINTH APPEARANCE: TO JAMES — § 195 ………………………………….. 646
O. THE TENTH APPEARANCE: TO THE ELEVEN — § 196 ……………………………. 647
P. THE ASCENSION OF THE KING — § 197 …………………………………………… 648

XII. THE SEQUELS
— §§ 198–201 —

A. THE POLICY CONCERNING SIGNS — §198 ………………………………………… 651
B. RELATIONSHIP TO THE BOOK OF ACTS — § 199 …………………………………. 652
C. RELATIONSHIP TO THE BOOK OF HEBREWS — § 200 ……………………………. 654
D. THE THIRD SIGN OF JONAH — § 201 ……………………………………………… 656
1. Zechariah 4:1-14 …………………………………………………………………… 656
2. Revelation 11:3-13 ……………………………………………………………….. 657

CHARTS

A. 24-HOUR TIMELINE ………………………………………………………………….. 659
B. THE STAGES OF THE TRIAL …………………………………………………………… 661
C. THE TRIALS …………………………………………………………………………… 662
D. FIVE MISTREATMENTS ………………………………………………………………. 663
E. EIGHT MOCKERIES …………………………………………………………………… 664
F. HEROD’S TEMPLE ……………………………………………………………………. 665

SCRIPTURE INDEX ……………………………………………………………………….. 667